Tweet This post has been seen 3543 times. ALPHABETIZATION Before alphabets came into use, a complex system of pictographic symbols were used to store written information. The first alphabetic writing system, a Proto Sinaitic script with consonants, is believed to have been developed between 1850 and 1700 B.C. by a group of Semitic-speaking people. The script comprised 22 symbols and were written from right to left. PAPER An important invention by the Chinese, paper-making is believed to have existed since 105 A.D. A government official in the court of the Eastern Han emperor Ho-di — Ts’ai Lun — discovered that the bark of a mulberry tree, hemp, rags and fish nets yield pulp to create sheets for writing. The paper-making technique gradually spread over to Egypt, Africa and Europe. OPTICAL LENSES Italy is believed to be the birthplace of the lenses in the 13th century, which were made of natural crystal. While it was later replaced by glass, the vision would still be blurry for the user. Finally, in 1730, Chester Moore Hall, an English lawyer, invented the first achromatic lenses using two glass lenses and made a huge leap in the field. REFRIGERATION The first known artificial refrigeration system was showcased at the University of Glasgow by Dr. William Cullen in 1748, while the first refrigeration machine was designed by American inventor Oliver Evans in 1805. Based on Evans’ design, an American physician — John Gorrie — built a refrigerator to treat his patients suffering from yellow fever in 1844. The benefits of refrigeration were soon realized by the brewing industry, followed by the meat packaging one. (Pictured) An Electrolux representative demonstrates the mechanics of one of the company’s refrigerators at the Savoy Hotel in London, England in February 1926. THE SEXTANT This nautical instrument brought about a revolution for sailors and mariners. One of the earliest sextants was designed by Englishman John Bird in 1757. This was based on the designs of models of the octant developed individually by John Hadley and Thomas Godfrey in England and the United States, respectively. They, in turn, had based their inventions on the findings of Isaac Newton’s ‘double reflection’ in 1699. THE STEAM ENGINE The first-ever steam engine was patented by Thomas Savery, an English military engineer, in 1698. However, it was only in 1712 when English blacksmith, Thomas Newcomen, invented the atmospheric engine using a piston that the steam engine was used commercially in a mine. After about five decades, a much-improved version was developed by Scottish engineer, James Watt which was instrumental for the Industrial Revolution. (Pictured) “Father of the Railways” George Stephenson’s The Rocket in 1829. PRINTING PRESS Johannes Gutenberg, a German blacksmith, introduced the printing press around the late 1430s. Using metal blocks, he created a movable type machine to reproduce texts and the first-ever printed Bible. The printing press played a significant role during the Renaissance period and heralded the era of mass communication. THE INTERNET Evolving over time, the Internet was the harbinger of the digital age. Its beginning can be traced back to the Cold War era, when the United States used it as a government weapon. Fearing Soviet’s impending attack on its telephone networks, an M.I.T. scientist — J.C.R. Licklider — proposed a ‘galactic network’ of computers for communication in 1962. The concept of ‘packet switching’ was developed in 1965, which led to the creation of ARPAnet, the government’s computer network. The first message to be delivered by it was “LOGIN” in 1969. THE PERSONAL COMPUTER The development of the first microprocessor in 1971 by Ted Hoff, an engineer at Intel, led to major changes in the world of PCs. The 1970s saw several individuals such as Paul G. Allen, Bill Gates, Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak bring about a revolution to give birth to the microcomputer, which was user-friendly and cost-effective. Comments commentsPages: 1 2 3 DiscoveriesHistoryInventionsMostSignificant FacebookTwitterGoogle+EmailPinterestLinkedinTumblrWhatsApp You might also like More from author Best Tech World Top 5 Future Technology Inventions 2019 – 2050 Entertainment World Most Dangerous Places on Earth Knowledge Top 5 World most poorest country Latest Tech Xiaomi Notebook Air! (specifications) Entertainment What Invention in the world You Like Most – Amazing Technology Inventions 2017 Entertainment world most funny video ever 2017 ! Try not to laugh Prev Next Comments are closed.