What is dermatitis?
Types of dermatitis:
Contact dermatitis typically causes the skin to develop a pink or red rash, which usually itches. Pinpointing the exact cause of contact dermatitis can be difficult. Contact dermatitis may be irritant or allergic. Common chemical irritants include detergents, soaps, some synthetic fibres, nail polish remover, anti-perspirants, and formaldehyde (found in non- iron fabrics, polishes, artificial-fingernail adhesive, chipboard, and foam insulation). Some plants, in particular primula, chrysanthemums, daffodils and tulips, irritate some people. Wearing rubber gloves, or nickel or cobalt in jewellery can cause contact allergic dermatitis if the person is allergic to these substances. Both types of contact dermatitis may be caused by cosmetics, perfumes, hair dyes, and skin-care products.
Nummular dermatitis consists of distinctive coin-shaped red plaques that are most commonly seen on the legs, hands, arms, and torso. It is more common in men than women and the peak age of onset is between 55 and 65. Living in a dry environment or having very hot showers can cause this condition.
Atopic dermatitis or eczema
Seborrhoeic dermatitis consists of greasy, yellowish, or reddish scaling on the scalp and other hairy areas, as well as on the face or genitals, and in skin creases along the nose, under the breasts, and elsewhere. This condition is called cradle cap in infants and is likely to be related to maternal hormonal changes affecting the sebaceous glands (glands that produce a natural greasy substance, sebum). It may be aggravated by stress.
Stasis dermatitis is caused by poor circulation and can happen in people withvaricose veins, congestive heart failure, or other conditions. Veins in the lower legs fail to return blood efficiently, causing pooling of blood and fluid build-up andoedema. This leads to irritation, especially round the ankles.
What are the symptoms of dermatitis?
Dry, reddish, itchy skin indicates some kind of dermatitis, or skin inflammation, of which there are many types:
- A red rash that is limited to the area of skin exposed to an irritant is probably contact dermatitis.
- Red, itchy, circular patches of weeping, scaly, or encrusted skin suggest nummular dermatitis, common in older people who have dry skin or live in dry environments.
- Greasy, yellowish scales on the scalp and eyebrows, behind the ears, and around the nose indicate seborrhoeic dermatitis; in infants it is called cradle cap.
- Scaling, sometimes ulcerated skin appearing inside the lower legs and around the ankles, may indicate stasis dermatitis.
- Extreme, persistent itchiness may signal atopic dermatitis (eczema). Very often, however, itchiness results simply from dry skin.
Dermatitis: Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Seek medical advice if:
- Your skin has oozing sores or other signs of infection. You may need treatment with antibiotics or other drugs.
- The affected skin does not respond to treatment with over-the-counter creams or medicated shampoos. You should have a medical diagnosis made and treatment recommended.
During a flare-up of eczema, if you are exposed to anyone with a herpes simplex virus infection, you are at increased risk of contracting the viral disorder.
How do I know if I have dermatitis?
Most types of dermatitis can be diagnosed by a doctor’s observation of the irritation and its location on the body. Sometimes a skin scraping will be taken for microscopic analysis. To identify causes of contact dermatitis, a doctor may try patch tests, applying suspected allergens to areas of skin on the back. Patch testing is usually carried out by a skin specialist (dermatologist).
What are the treatments for dermatitis?
The first step in treating dermatitis is to identify and eliminate the cause. Most mild skin inflammation responds well to room temperature baths followed by application of fragrance-free moisturising lotions or over-the-counter hydrocortisone cream.
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